El Cóndor Pasa
El Condor Pasa is perhaps the best-known Peruvian traditional tune. It is a melody taken from a Zarzuela (short opera with dialog) from the early 20th century, which was based on traditional Andean music. Peru has officially designated the song a part of the national cultural heritage, and it is considered by many to be a second, unofficial national anthem. Simon and Garfunkel released a version in 1970 that was very popular in English-speaking countries, leading to even greater international familiarity with this melody.
This is a version (with 34 million views!) recorded with a traditional Peruvian flute, accompanied by bass, guitar, and percussion.
The Simon and Garfunkel version (below) opens with the strumming of a Charango, a traditional andean instrument with 10 strings